How to Write a Business Plan: 9 Steps

7 min read
How to Write a Business Plan: 9 Steps

Your business plan is like your roadmap toward your goals as an entrepreneur. Creating an effective business plan will be a crucial part of successfully establishing and scaling your company. From startups looking for seed funding to established enterprises planning for global expansion, all kinds of companies rely on a well-crafted business plan as a fundamental tool for success.

In this article, we’ll explore why business plans are important and how to create a business plan of your own. We’ll also take a look at a few examples of important elements to include in specific types of business plans. Let’s dive in.

What Is a Business Plan?

A business plan is a comprehensive strategy that outlines a business’s goals, its structure and organization, its long-term growth forecasts, and much more. The purpose of a business plan is to provide a clear and succinct explanation of your business’s mission and its strategy for generating revenue sustainably.

The Importance of Business Plans

Now that we’ve covered the business plan definition, let’s move on to the importance of business plans. There are many reasons why it’s important for your business to have a clear business plan. Here are a few of the most significant ones:

Aids Decision-Making 

A well-developed business plan forces entrepreneurs and business leaders to think strategically about every aspect of their venture. It prompts you to define your target market, competition, unique value proposition, and growth strategy. Possessing this strategic clarity will aid you greatly as you make decisions for your business, ensuring that the choices you make align with a successful trajectory for the company.

Helps to Attract Investors 

For startup founders seeking funding, a clear business plan is a non-negotiable asset for attracting investors. Investors need to be able to quickly grasp your business concept, its potential for success in your target market, and your strategy for future growth. A well-articulated business plan is essential for communicating these key aspects of your venture and instilling confidence in potential investors.

Mitigates Risk

Making a business plan also helps entrepreneurs identify and mitigate risks. By taking a proactive approach to studying your market and analyzing potential roadblocks, you can develop a contingency plan for just about any obstacle that comes your way.

How to Write a Business Plan

Every business’s strategy is a bit different, and there is no one-size-fits-all approach to writing a business plan. However, following these 9 steps will help you maintain an effective framework for your business plan:

1. Executive Summary

The executive summary serves as the initial point of engagement in your business plan. Beyond simply summarizing your business idea, the executive summary should present a clear, concise overview of your company’s goals, vision, and values. Remember that the executive summary also functions as the introduction to your business, so it should be engaging enough to catch the reader’s attention right away and give them an idea of your core business strategy at a glance.

2. Company Description

Next is the company description. As the bedrock upon which your entire business plan stands, your company description should include a detailed explanation of your business’s organizational structure, mission statement, and key objectives. Dig deeper than surface-level information and provide a comprehensive overview of your company's purpose (what problem does it exist to solve?) and unique value proposition within your target market (why is your solution better than your competitors’?).

3. Market Analysis

Next, you’ll explore your target market with a detailed market analysis section. In this section, you’ll conduct a comprehensive examination of your target market, the key competitors in that market, and the industry trends that influence it. You’ll need to delve into your market’s demographic data, size, consumer behavior patterns, and more. Crucially, you should go beyond merely collecting data during the market analysis process and instead, actually use that data to inform your business strategy and to help you make critical business decisions.

4. Organization and Management

In the organization and management section of your business plan, you need to paint a vivid picture of your business’s internal workings. Clearly outline the organizational framework of your company and introduce the key personnel who will be instrumental in driving the business forward. Don’t forget to detail each team member’s roles and responsibilities and emphasize the unique value that each role contributes.

5. Products or Services

Use the products or services section of your business plan to define what exactly it is your business offers its customers — whether it’s a software application, a physical piece of hardware, consulting services, perishable goods, or any other kind of product or service. Clearly define and articulate the value of your products or services and emphasize their advantages over similar, competitor products or services. Go into detail about the different features and capabilities that make your offering unique and address how it will effectively meet a real, urgent need in your target market. The narrative around your product or service will often become the core identity of your business.

6. Marketing and Sales Strategy

In the marketing and sales strategy section of your business plan, create a comprehensive roadmap for how you will bring your products or services to your target market. Outline a cohesive plan that precisely defines your target audience, communicates your pricing strategy, and elaborates on promotional activities and sales tactics. This is not just a plan for acquiring customers — it's about how your business will build lasting relationships with a strategic approach to customer engagement that resonates with your target market.

7. Funding Request (If Applicable)

If you’re seeking financial backing from investors, you should also include a funding request section in your business plan. Name the amount of funding your business requires at its current stage, the purpose for which the funds will be used, and the expected return on investment. Include plenty of data evidence of why your business is a worthy investment to create a more compelling request for funding. This section should speak directly to investors, offering a persuasive narrative that emphasizes your business's financial viability and long-term growth potential.

8. Financial Projections

The financial projections section of your business plan will go into detail about your company’s financial forecasts. This section should include income statements, balance sheets, cash flow statements, historical market data, and any other available evidence that will contribute to the overall picture of your company’s financial health. The financial projections section is all about demonstrating a clear path to financial viability and long-term sustainability. This narrative should intertwine seamlessly with the strategic vision you presented earlier.

9. Appendix

The final section you should include in your business plan is an appendix. The appendix should consist of any supplementary information that can help to reinforce the clarity or viability of your business strategy. For example, you could include more in-depth market research, supporting product documentation, or the resumes of key team members. Your business plan’s appendix provides a way for stakeholders to delve even deeper into the specifics of your business strategy.

4 Business Plan Examples

While the business plan template above is a great tool for organizing and getting started on just about any business plan, no two strategies will look exactly alike. Here are some examples of specific elements to include in business plans for different types of businesses:

Tech Startup Business Plan

When crafting a business plan for a tech startup, focus on introducing a groundbreaking product or service to the market. The business plan should highlight the market entry strategies the startup plans to use and specify how it will reach its initial customer base. Growth projections should provide a roadmap for scalability, while funding requirements outline the financial resources required to develop and market the product or service successfully.

E-Commerce Business Plan

For an e-commerce business plan, the executive summary should introduce the online venture and how it will serve a specific product category or niche. The business plan overall should address unique considerations such as marketing strategies for driving online traffic, logistics for efficient order fulfillment, and scalability measures to accommodate growth. It should also emphasize how the business will create a seamless online shopping experience and include strategies for digital customer acquisition and retention.

Consulting Services Business Plan

For a consulting services business plan, emphasize the expertise your firm brings to the table. The executive summary should introduce the consulting niche and the specific services offered, and market analysis should identify the target industries and showcase an understanding of market trends. Organization and management details should highlight the experience and qualifications of your consulting team, while the marketing and sales strategy should outline how the firm will position itself and attract clients.

Biotech Innovation Business Plan

When crafting a business plan for a biotech innovation venture, emphasize the groundbreaking scientific advancements your company aims to introduce. Detail your research and development strategies to demonstrate the unique value proposition of your biotech solution, and consider highlighting potential collaborations with research institutions or pharmaceutical companies. Use clear, data-based growth projections to illustrate the potential impact of your innovation on the biotech industry.

Conclusion

A well-crafted business plan is crucial for any entrepreneur who wants to make sure their business succeeds. By following the 9 steps we’ve outlined and considering the examples we’ve provided, you can develop an effective strategy that includes all the key elements of a business plan.

Get 1:1 advice from Business Expert

Tristram Hewitt

Tristram Hewitt

Ex-VP of Operations - Turo
Startup Growth Expert

Turo
Outschool

Tristram Hewitt is an experienced ops executive with a track record of scaling companies like Turo (Series B to E) and Outschool (Series A to D). His expertise covers customer ops, risk, insurance, go-to-market, and company operations in marketplaces, mobility, and edtech. Tristram excels at data-driven problem-solving and has prior experience at Bain. He got his degree from Harvard and holds his MBA from the University of Chicago.

Turo
Bain & Company
Outschool
Intrax
Harvard University
See pricing & availability
Robin Daniels

Robin Daniels

CMO - WeWork Matterport
Growth and GTM Expert

WeWork
Matterport

Robin is a three-time CMO with more than 20 years of experience in marketing and growth leadership roles at companies like Salesforce, Box, LinkedIn, Matterport, and WeWork. He's done 3 IPOs, several acquisitions, and led companies through hyper-growth to become household names. Robin now works as an advisor, speaker, and motivator to fast-growth companies around the world.

Took 3 companies public
WeWork
Matterport
Salesforce
Box
See pricing & availability
Itay Forer

Itay Forer

Co-Founder - Cleanly
Y Combinator Alum

Cleanly
Initialized Capital

Itay Forer is the co-founder of Cleanly, an on-demand laundry & dry cleaning service backed by YCombinator (W15), Initialized Capital, Soma Capital, Paul Buchheit (creator of Gmail), and NFL legend Joe Montana. He is a serial entrepreneur, board member, mentor/coach, and active angel investor who has built a startup from the ground up to a 400+ person workforce. Specializes in PMF and scaling companies from 0 to 10. As a mentor, he has helped over 200 founders realize their full potential.

Y Combinator alum
GTM strategy
Building sales team
Finding PMF
Scaling startups
See pricing & availability